Steps to Successful Habit Change

Are you trying to change a habit or implement a new behaviour this year?

Firstly, what is a habit?

A habit is a repeated action. Something that you do often and regularly, sometimes without knowing you are doing it. 

Most of us have tried to change a behaviour or start a new routine without successfully integrating them into our lives.

I’ve gone “all in”, full motivation on a big change that I’m excited about – until the initial excitement wore off and I’d be back to where I started.

Whilst training with Precision Nutrition I learnt about the science of habit change and what works when it comes to modifying our behaviours. By including simple steps – you can change or create a habit and make it last.

These five steps can get your new habit started, create momentum, and build success, so you keep it up and establish a solid routine:


The only way to form long-lasting habits is to apply the power of less. Focus on one habit at a time, one month at a time, so you can focus all your energy on creating that one habit.


Change occurs because of action. Unfortunately, we tend to get caught up in the planning, prepping, information gathering etc. and fail to action to move forward.

You need to create an actual action step to begin.

For example, I want to include more vegetables in my diet. The specific action would be to order a vegetable box each week or add x number of vegetables to your weekly shop.

Get specific with the action step you need to take.


Don’t decide to do something hard initially. For now, do something you know you can achieve every day.

When you set to change a habit, it can feel exciting to make the change and you might have a big plan for what you want to accomplish. For example, I’m going to cook ALL my meals and go to the gym 6 days a week, plus walk 10,000 steps. But then real life happens, and it becomes clear that there is no way you can sustain this plan for a long period. 

Instead, make a smaller action step and one that sets yourself up for success.

If you create a simple, easy step you can take no matter what obstacles come your way you’ll build momentum and start making progress.


When you have completed an action step consistently, acknowledge it. Celebrate the smallest wins and find a way to track your progress. It can be a simple tracking sheet, a calendar, notes on your phone or a notebook whatever works for you.


Having support from a friend, family member, or a group with the same interest affects your ability to keep going. Someone you can talk to about what you are working on, encourage each other and help navigate along the way.

Expect setbacks now and then, but just note them and move on. Get straight back to it with no guilt.

If you found this helpful and would like a tracker to get started or need support on the next steps please do get in touch.


7 Fundamentals to Always Come Back To

My 7-health go-to tips for when you need to regain some structure.  

  • Schedule your exercise

Originally, I had written this as strength training and yes, I can tell you all the benefits but most importantly find something you enjoy. Something you can stick to every single week that gets your heart rate up. Look at your diary and schedule it for each week so that you have committed to showing up.  

  • Eat mainly nutrient-dense food

We are healthier when we consume more whole foods and fewer refined ones. This is mainly because the greater the degree of processing, the higher the likelihood that food has lost its nutritional value, such as fibre, essential fatty acids, vitamins and minerals. Has gained additives, preservatives, fillers, sugars, sodium and unhealthy fats.

Much debated at the moment and some would disagree, but the energy balance equation weight loss and weight gain come down to one key equation.

[Energy in] – [Energy out] = Changes in body stores

Yes, other lifestyle and genetic factors will contribute but if you are true to yourself getting this right first will make a difference to you reaching your goal.

When you take in more energy (or calories) than you burn, you gain weight.

When you take in less energy than you burn, you lose weight.

When you take in the same energy as you burn, you maintain.

  • Drink water

We need around 3 litres of fluid per day but note the exact amount will vary from person to person. Around 1 litre will come from food, especially if you eat enough vegetables and fruit. That leaves us with around 2 litres to get from drinking. The old classic 8 glasses of water a day is a good general rule. Play around with it and if you find you keep getting thirsty you need to increase it, especially if your activity level is high.

  • Daily Movement

Movement does a lot more than just get us into shape.  Movement affects how we feel physically, mentally and emotionally. Pay attention to how you move daily. If you sit at a desk set an alarm to move every hour, stretch and walk around. Take note of how you move when you first wake up? Do you reach straight for your phone or could you dedicate 3-5 minutes mobilising your body to wake it up?

  • Get outside

Living close to nature and spending time outside has a significant and wide-ranging health benefit. It can help reduce the risk of type II diabetes, cardiovascular disease, premature death, stress, and high blood pressure. If you live somewhere with limited sunlight, consider investing in a daylight therapy lamp. Take note of how much time you spend outside and see if you can increase it if it doesn’t feel enough.

  • Sleep

We live in a busy world but that doesn’t mean we are victims of it. While technology takes over a lot of our day, we have the choice to prioritise sleep. Aim if you can for 7 hours per night.

Make sleep a priority, just like the rest of your healthy habits. Here are things that can help:

  • Consistency: Keep a relatively consistent bedtime and wake up, even at the weekends. Staying up late on the weekend can disrupt your routine during the week.
  • Light: Keep your bedroom dark.
  • Noise: Keep your bedroom as quiet as you can by leaving technology outside of the room.
  • Have a relaxing routine: develop a pre-bed routine that sets you up for a good night’s sleep.
  • Temperature: try and keep your room cool.
  • Stimulants: eliminate things like coffee past 3 pm. If that’s too late for you then shift your cut-off earlier in the day.
  • Digestion: try and give yourself some time to digest your food before bed, stopping to eat around 2 hours before bedtime if you can.
  • Be flexible with yourself. Adjust and continue.

This one is key, it’s impossible to be doing everything to plan 100% of the time. But consistency is one of the most important things with any area you are trying to work on. So when you do go on that holiday and indulge or miss a few training sessions it doesn’t matter and won’t make a difference to you reaching your goals.


Rainbow chard, tomato and goat’s cheese tart

This tart is packed with colour. The hazelnuts gives this quiche a lovely nuttiness, which balances off really nicely with the savoury filling. Chard has a stronger flavour than spinach and is equally nutrient-dense.

Makes enough for a 9inch (23cm) round dish

For the pastry:

  • 1 cup (150g/51/2 oz) buckwheat flour
  • 1 cup (100g/3/12 oz) finely ground hazelnuts
  • ¼ cup (30g/1 oz) arrowroot
  • ½ tsp. Himalayan salt
  • 2 ½ tbsp. macadamia oil
  • 1 large egg, lightly beaten
  • 1 ½ tbsp. water
  • 1 tbsp. apple cider vinegar (unpasteurised)

For the filling:

  1. 1 tbsp. olive oil
  2. 1 small brown onion, thinly sliced
  3. 2 garlic cloves
  4. 200g (7 oz) rainbow chard, coarsely chopped
  5. finely grated zest of 1 lemon
  6. Himalayan salt and freshly ground pepper
  7. 100g (3 ½ oz) soft goats cheese
  8. 150g (5 ½ oz) cherry tomatoes, halved
  9. 1 small handful basil leaves, coarsely chopped
  10. 1 small handful thyme leaves, coarsely chopped
  11. 6 large eggs
  12. 2/3 cup (160ml/ 5 ½ fl oz) almond milk


Preheat the oven to 200°C. / 400°F

Lightly grease a 23 cm (9in) loose-based fluted flan (tart) tin with coconut oil. Refrigerate.

Prepare the pastry:

Place the buckwheat flour, ground hazelnuts, arrowroot and salt in a large bowl and stir to combine. Add the macadamia oil, egg, water and vinegar and stir to form a sticky dough.

Press the dough evenly into the base and sides of the prepared tin. Prick the base several times with a fork. Bake for 15 minutes, or until crisp and golden brown.

Prepare the filling:

Heat the oil in a large frying pan over a low heat. Cook the onion and garlic, stirring occasionally, for 10 minutes, or until softened and beginning to caramelise. Add the chard and cook for 1-2 minutes, until wilted. Remove from the heat. Add the lemon zest and season with salt and pepper. 

Assemble the quiche:

Scatter half of the goat’s cheese over the base of the quiche. Arrange the chard and onion mixture over the top. Scatter with tomatoes, basil and thyme. Scatter with the remaining goat’s cheese.

Lightly beat the eggs together in a medium bowl. Add the almond milk and beat to combine. Season with salt and pepper. Pour the egg mixture into the quiche. 

Bake for 25-35 minutes, until the egg is set and the top is golden brown. Leave in the tin for 10 minutes to cool slightly. Remove from the tin and slice to serve. 


Cauliflower & Kale Bake

Quick, easy and filling lunch. Using vegetables which are in season.


  • 1 large cauliflower
  • 1/2 bag of kale
  • 2 tbsp extra-virgin olive oil
  • 2 garlic cloves, crushed
  • 100g cashew nuts soaked for 2 hours
  • 4 tbsp nutritional yeast
  • 1 tsp dijon mustard
  • 100ml kefir
  • 200ml oat milk
  • optional: caynne pepper


[1] Begin by preheating the oven to 180ºc. Place the cauliflower on a baking tray with the garlic, cover in 1 tbsp of olive oil, season and place in the oven for 20 minutes.

[2] Meanwhile, in a blender place the cashew nuts, dijon mustard, kefir, oat milk, nutritional yeast and blend until smooth.

[3] Add the kale to the cauliflower, cover with another tbsp of olive oil and place back in the oven for 5 minutes.

[4] Pour the sauce into a pan and add half of the grated cheese. Heat on a low-medium heat stirring continuously until the cheese has melted and the sauce has thickened.

[5] Stir through the cooked vegetables. When fully combined empty into an ovenproof dish and sprinkle with the remaining cheese. Place back in the oven for 10 minutes.



How much cardiovascular training should I be doing?

These are the common types of questions I get about cardio…

  • How much cardio should I be doing?
  • Will it help me get leaner?
  • Should I do more cardio vs. weights?
  • What time of day is best to do cardio?
Photo by Littlepipphotography

Firstly, cardiovascular (cardio) relates to the circulatory system, which comprises of your heart blood vessels and carries nutrients and oxygen to the tissues of the body and removes carbon dioxide and other wastes from them. 

Types of cardio, however are not created equal. In order to really understand how cardio types work you need to have an understanding of the energy systems involved:

  1. Anaerobic (a-lactic): Fastest and most powerful system. This system works without oxygen, doesn’t produce lactic acid. Because these fuel stores are relatively small, the immediate system only supplies energy for up to about 10 seconds of high intensity activity.
  2. Anaerobic (lactic): Works with oxygen, produces lactic acid. Fuel for this system comes from glucose in the blood and stored glycogen in the muscle. 
  3. Aerobic: The long term system produces energy through aerobic (with oxygen) pathways. This system is dominant at lower intensities and efforts lasting longer than 2 to 3 minutes. 

The energy systems do not work independently. During exercise, all the systems operate simultaneously in different degrees, depending on the energy demands placed on the body. 

This is the reason I love coaching my ‘Power Rides’ with cues such as RPE (Rate of perceived exertion). This makes class unique to any fitness level in order to get the most out of it. For my PT clients (and myself) I focus on the first two energy systems because we are after results, function and balance. I’m also always looking to make each session effective and efficient. Aerobic type training is needed for endurance athletes and a great option for active recovery days. 

Coming back to those questions, the short answer is ‘depends on your goal’. If you are aiming to gain muscle mass then 10-20 minutes of cardio training at a low to moderate intensity after strength training might work for you. If your goal is to lose body fat then 20-30 minutes of cardio training at a moderate intensity after strength training is a good option.  For optimal health, the British Heart Foundation suggest to aim for 150 minutes of moderate intensity aerobic activity each week. 

Start with your goal, then build out a structured training plan which incorporates the type of cardio which you’ll benefit from the most.

Need help planning your training? Drop me a note with your splits and I’ll send you suggestions.


Negative Energy Balance – for Fat Loss

What is energy balance?

“Energy balance” is the correlation between “energy in” (food calories taken into the body through food and drink) and “energy out” (calories being used in the body for our daily energy requirements). 

We convert potential energy stored within our food (measured in kcals) into three areas: work, heat and storage. 

Even though a crash diet might seem harmless and a “kick-start” as possibly advertised, being in a severe negative energy balance can be detrimental on your health. Including, a possible decline in metabolism, decrease in bone mass, reduction in thyroid hormones, reductions in testosterone levels, an inability to concentrate and a reduction in physical performance. 

On the flip side overfeeding and not having enough movement can not only mean weight gain but can have more serious implications such as plaques build up in arteries, blood pressure and cholesterol in the body can increase, we can become insulin resistant and suffer from diabetes, we can increase our risk for certain cancers. 

In theory the concept “eat less, move more” sounds straight forward. But implementing it can feel complex. 

Let’s break it down further….

Energy is what we consume, broken down into macronutrients this is made up of protein, carbohydrates and fats. In kcal terms:

Carbohydrates = 4 kcal per gram

Protein = 4 kcal per gram

Fat = 9 kcal per gram 

The energy out is where it gets more complex 

Energy out which is our energy expenditure is made up of Excersice Activity Thermogenesis (EAT), Thermic Effect of Feeding (TEF), None Exercise Activity Therognesis (NEAT) and Resting Energy Expenditure (REE) which is also known as our Resting Metabolic Rate. 

EAT: is defined as planned, structured, and repetitive physical activity that has the objective of improving health (for example; sport or visiting the gym)

NEAT: represents the predominant component of daily activity thermogenesis with the exception of some sports-like exercise and resistance training

TEF: the increase in the metabolic rate that occurs after a meal.

REE: represents the amount of energy expended by a person at rest.

Taking all of this into account it’s clear that just counting calories isn’t the long-term answer, yes it has its place and can give you a starting benchmark but there are so many other factors that need to be considered. Simply blaming weight gain on calories in doesn’t paint the entire picture. Lifestyle and environment play a big role in supporting a goal of fat loss.

Body awareness such as hunger queues and satiety, avoiding processed foods, regular physical activity, sleep and recovery all play a big part.

How to create a negative energy balance

  • Build muscle with weight training 
  • Regularly program change to force new stimuli and adaptation 
  • Increase non-exercise physical activity such as walking, gardening, cleaning
  • Increase thermic effect of feeding by increasing unprocessed food intake and focusing on wholefoods 
  • Eat lean protein at regular intervals throughout the day
  • Eat vegetables and/or fruit at regular intervals
  • Incorporate omega-3 fats
  • Stay involved with life outside of exercise and nutrition
  • Sleep for 7-9 hours a night 
  • Don’t extreme diet 
  • Stay consistent by building good habits 
  • Use a food journal to identify the areas you need to work on. Then put your focus on a weekly total energy rather than a single day to stay consistent
  • Look at overall portion size 
  • Stop thinking of exercise as burning calories instead focus on getting stronger and fitter 

The human body is incredibly complex, and every day brings a new challenge. Don’t overwhelm yourself with too much in one go and break it down to focusing on 1-2 habits every 2-3 week’s, get those right then move on to the next.  

If you found this helpful and want to find out more, please drop me your questions below.


Journal of exercise nutrition & biochemistry

Research Gate

Precision Nutrition


The 3 R’s of Recovery

After a challenging training session or race, how you recover is key to overall performance. If we recover better, we train harder!

Providing your body with the correct nutrients at the correct time can affect the rate we recover. Dehydration, glycogen depletion (when our carb stores have been used) and muscle soreness can all be tackled by a consistent nutrition strategy. 

If you follow the rule “3 R’s of recovery” after every hard session and race, you can be sure recovery will be training harder with more consistency. 

Rehydrate – Refuel – Rebuild


Take in water or/and electrolyte drinks. At the end of a race or hard session drink 500ml fluid. Afterwards, drink little and often. Cramping and muscle fatigue can often be a barrier to stop someone from sticking to their workout plan. By rehydrating and replenishing sodium, you’ll be able to reduce post-workout symptoms. 


Current data indicates that after a workout the muscle cells’ ability to begin rebuilding and replenishment peaks at about 15 minutes and declines by as much as 40% within 60 minutes. Carbohydrates provide our bodies and brains with fuel needed to recover and ultimately adapt to the training session. Refuel with carbohydrates but make sure it’s an amount that fits in with your level of activity. For example, if you have 24 hours between your sessions then follow your daily carb needs for your level of activity and aim for a well-balanced meal.


Rebuild with protein. Protein plays an important part in the long term recovery and adaptation of training. In general, getting around 20 grams of protein after a strenuous workout is ideal. Consuming a ratio of 3:1 carbs to protein post-workout is a good rule of thumb to increase recovery, repair muscles and refuel after an endurance or high intensity workout. As always, this can vary depending on your needs, goals, gender etc. 

The British Nutrition Foundation recommends for the general population around 0.75g of protein per kg of bodyweight per day. If you’re consuming more than this it’s unlikely you’ll need extra protein if your activity is within the guidelines of 150 minutes of moderate intensity activity per week. If you train more regularly then your protein requirements may be slightly higher. 

Some examples of what this could look like:

  • Smashed avocado, one piece of whole-grain toast and an egg
  • Greek yogurt with berries 
  • High protein smoothie 
  • Hummus with rice cakes
  • Apple and almond butter

When planning your post-workout meal, it’s important to look at a 24 hour picture and decide the amount you need. Your needs will differ based on your body size, what you ate before and during your workout. Consider all the elements and listen to your body. 

Need help in planning your nutrition strategy? drop me a note via the contact me page.

*British Nutrition Foundation


*Science alert



If I’ve grabbed your attention with this diagram*, then please take some time to look at it in detail. It’s a brilliantly simplified way of illustrating how your body is perceiving stressor(s).

The Role of Stress and the HPA Axis in Chronic Disease Management

Broken down into the following categories:

Perceived Stress: How you perceive an event, rather than the event intrinsic capacity to harm you

Circadian Disruptions: Rhythms entrained by the light and dark cycles of day and night 

Glycemic Dysregulation: What we eat, how and when is key for our metabolic health. 

Inflammatory Signals: Acute or chronic inflammation increases cortisol availability within inflamed tissues

What can we do about it?

Create strategies to modify the stress-signals coming from one or more of these categories. This will result in improvement within the stress response system. 

A few changes to your daily choices and habits can make a difference:

  • Managing your emotional support. Reduce or get rid of things that don’t serve you anymore. Add in coping mechanismssuch as mindfulness, meditation, calling a friend
  • Sleep is one of the most important ways to rebuild metabolic reserve. By managing your daytime activities such as having at least 1 hour of no screen time before bed, making sure you get 7-9 hours per night, creating an environment in your bedroom that supports a deep sleep, putting in place coping mechanisms for stressful situations 
  • Maintain a healthy and balanced lifestyle by ensuring you get enough physical activity but also enough recovery. Over training can also have a detrimental impact on your metabolic health. 
  • Proactively looking at ways to manage stress in your life 

It’s important to remember that some of these are choices we make on a regular basis and/or habits we have built over the years. Our daily demands have increased, digital engagement is far higher and we are programmed to accept we need to be a certain way to fit in with the ‘norm’ when actually a lot of these changes can be made with self-awareness followed by small, consistent daily adjustments.  

What to do next? Look at this diagram and write down for each section areas which increase stress in your life, then look strategies you can put in place to reduce those stresses. 


FULL BODY WORKOUT – You’ll need dumbbells or kettlebells for this one!

A1. FFE (front foot elevated) split squat –  8-10 on each side 

The hip flexor muscles become chronically shortened in population who sit for a living. This adaptive shortening leads to lower back pain due to dysfunction in the knees and hips. This exercise improves the strength of the quadriceps, medial hamstrings, and adductors. It also helps to re-establish normative flexibility of the hip flexors. 

Coaching tips:

  • Maintain a heel up position in the rear leg. Doing so will improve your pivot point
  • Maintain a heel down position on the front leg. Ankle flexibility is crucial in this exercise
  • Do not be afraid of driving the front knee forward of the toes if you don’t have a knee injury. It’s a natural position of the lower limb that becomes lost to us as muscles of the ankle, knee and hip adaptively shorten through inactivity
  • You can add load by holding dumbbells with each hand, kettlebells or add in a controlled quarter at the end range for increased intensity

A2. Shoulder taps – 8-10 on each side 

Great for working the abdominals and core, as well as shoulders. It’s harder than the straight arm plank because of the switching between single arms for support. 

Coaching tips:

  • Don’t rush the movement, hold 2 seconds on one shoulder, 2 seconds at a high plank position and then 2 seconds on the opposite shoulder 
  • Try to keep your hips as static as possible 

B1. Dumbbells Bent Over Row – 12 reps 

This is a great exercise to master before advancing to other rowing exercise variations as it helps you lock down the proper form. The starting position for this move is similar to a deadlift, with a hinged hips and flat back. 

Coaching tips:

  • Stand with feet hip-width apart, slight bend in the knees
  • Hinge the hips until your chest is parallel with the floor whilst maintaining a flat back 
  • Squeeze your shoulder blades together, brace your core. 
  • Keep your elbows tight next to your body

B2. Dumbbell Floor Press  – 12 reps 

This exercise is a great option to anyone with shoulder issues. It’s better tolerated than a traditional bench press as it uses a neutral grip and pressing on the floor limits the range of motion slightly. 

Coaching tips:

You can advance the movement by pressing one arm at a time to increase the core demands of the exercise. You’ll need to brace your core to keep yourself steady and be ready to feel it the next day after you try it for the first time.

C1. Mountain climbers – 8 on each side 

A great way to increase your heart rate and even if you can’t maintain the pace the motion alone will target your core muscles. Your legs also work on this exercises whilst the upper body support means it’s working your arms too. 

Coaching tips:

  • Keep your core braced and your shoulders, hips and feet in a straight line throughout 
  • You can advance this movement by doing it elevated, on a gym ball, cross body or spider-man options. 

C2. Side plank hold – 30 seconds on each side 

Often an ignored exercise that is well worth adding as it works weakened muscles called the quadratus lumborum, part of the posterior abdominal wall that plays a vital role in averting back pain. 

Coaching tips:

  • Make sure your elbow is perpendicular to your shoulder 
  • Squeeze your core and raise your hips until your body is in a straight line
  • Keep your head neutral to avoid neck pain 
  • Hold this position without letting your hips drop 

D1. Single Dumbbell front raise 10 – 12

I love working shoulders! The single-dumbbell front raise is an isolation movement that targets your shoulders. It focuses on the anterior or front head of the deltoid muscles. 

Coaching tips:

  • Raise your arms until shoulder height
  • Brace your core throughout 
  • To advance the movement perform it with one arm at a time, you can then focus on each shoulder muscle independently and try address any muscular imbalances between shoulders

Do these exercises in pairs, in this order (A1+A2, then rest 45 seconds and repeat 2-4 times before moving on to the B section and so forth). 

The announcement of the extended lockdown is frustrating, but we have to keep moving. Maintaining health and supporting our immune is key. Please drop your questions below or DM me if you need support with your fitness training and nutrition habits. 


Menstrual Cycle, Nutrition & Training

Is it me or does it feel like with every year you get older, PMS symptoms get worse?! Days leading up to it, I can easily cry, sleep feels more disturbed and my concentration decreases. I’m sure my partner would add snappy to that list but hey we can’t be positive all the time 😉 

What is PMS? 

Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) is a series of symptoms commonly experienced by females 1-2 weeks before menstruation (luteal phase). Symptoms can vary, but include mood swings, irritability, headaches, bloating, breast tenderness, and increased appetite, carbohydrate and alcohol craving. 

Here is a visual of the process.

As a trainer and coach, it’s important for me to know when my client’s menstrual cycle is as it will impact weight fluctuation (which is completely normal) of up to 2.5kg due to hormonal changes and fluid retention.

Core temperature increases in the days leading up to menstruation so increasing extra fluid intake is needed to ensure they’re hydrated enough. 

What you should consider during your menstrual cycle?

Some women find Vitamin D, Magnesium or Calcium supplements alleviates some of the symptoms. However, there is not enough scientific evidence to suggest the benefits of supplements on PMS. Here are some suggestions you could try:

  • Eat small, frequent meals based on complex carbs, high in fibre and easy to digest e.g., opt for wholemeal, wholegrains, brown rice, potatoes with skin on. Slow energy release foods to keep your energy levels up. 
  • Reduce salty foods to help prevent bloating
  • Make sure your diet has sufficient calcium and vitamin DNHS guidelines suggest adults aged 19-64 need 700mg of calcium a day and recommend taking 10 micrograms (400 IU) of vitamin D a day between October and early March. 
  • Increase magnesium rich foods such as green vegetables and wholegrain breakfast cereals. Magnesium turns the food we eat into energy and makes sure the parathyroid glands, that produce hormones important for bone health, work normally. 
  • Limit your alcohol intake. Higher intake of alcohol has been linked to increasing symptoms. 
  • Stay hydrated to help eliminate bloating sensation. Drinking enough water will also speed up your digestion, give you more energy and prevent water retention. 
  • Plan ahead. Planning ahead will help support you in including nutrient rich foods rather than reaching for caffeine, overeating high sugar snacks which can destabilise your blood sugar and mood.  
  • Eat chocolate but look for high cacao levels (70% or more) which you find in dark chocolate. A dark chocolate bar tends to have half the sugar of milk and contains less or no milk. It has more fibre, minerals and antioxidants. 
  • Keep active. Exercise helps improve symptoms of PMS, such as depression and fatigue. However, don’t ignore how you feel and adapt the exercise you are doing. 

Try and adjust your nutrition around your cycle and monitor how much of a difference it makes. If you are using a coach or personal trainer who creates your training plan, then speak to them about adjusting your training during your cycle. 








Seasonal Fatigue

With the clock’s changing, temperature dropping and the mornings getting darker it might feel noticeably harder to get out of bed. Many people feel tired and sluggish during winter.

The American Journal of Medicine found that patients with seasonal affective disorder (SAD) show a significant increase in irritability, depressed mood, anxiety and in turn of seasonal mood, energy levels, sleep duration, amount eaten, and weight change showed to worsen*. 

If you are self-aware that this might impact you then here are some energy-giving ideas that might help.

Expose yourself to as much light as possible

Lack of sunlight triggers your brain to produce more of a hormone called melatonin, which makes us sleepier. As soon as you are up open your blinds and let natural sunlight into your home. 

Continue or increase your activity outdoors

Get outdoors as much as possible. Stimulate your circulation by taking a walk in the fresh air. Making sure you get sunlight in winter will release serotonin in our bodies and prevent Vitamin D deficiency. Try to take breaks for lunchtime walks, make your working space light and airy. 

Stay hydrated

In the hotter months we pay more attention to staying hydrated. Remember to drink plenty of fluids when the weather is cooler. Not drinking enough water can slow down your metabolism and make you feel tired. The central heating also dries out your skin. 

Get a good night sleep but don’t snooze for longer 

Sleeping too much will enhance feeling sluggish during the day. We need the same amount of sleep all year round so aiming for 8 hours of undisturbed (sorry parents) sleep is usually adequate. Trying to get up at the same time every day also helps with energy levels. Make sure your bedrooms is a relaxed space, no clutter or blue light. 

Get regular exercise

It’s harder to motivate yourself to exercise during the colder months. Exercising in the late afternoon can help reduce early evening fatigue and also improves your sleep. There are so many exercises available online and a great chance to try something new. Most important make sure it’s something you enjoy otherwise you won’t stay consistent with it! 

Transition your diet

It’s important to adjust your diet with the seasons. Focus on vitamin-rich and seasonal meals that strengthen your immune system and eat good mood boosting foods. These can include seasonal vegetables, fish, eggs, warm meals that nourish your body and mind. 

If you have a sweet tooth, you’ll find it tempting to increase your sugar intake. This might give you a short energy rush, but it will wear off quickly. Find some healthier alternative treats that will keep you fuller for longer but satisfy your sweet tooth. 

Listen to music

Music is a great way to boost your mood. Studies show music has a link with positive effect on your mental health and stimulates the production of the “feel good” hormone serotonin. 

*Note: if you feel you are suffering with SAD please consult your GP.


What To Eat Before A Workout?

Before I get into this topic it’s key to remember that everyone is different, train at a different intensity and digest food differently. This is a guide as opposed to one set rule, I would suggest playing around with it to see what works for you.

The main nutritional goal for a pre-workout meal is to provide enough energy for our muscles and brain during training. This in turn makes carbohydrate consumption essential. If your workouts are fairly intense, therefore using up energy at a fast rate, the body won’t be able to supply enough oxygen to use fat as a fuel source. It looks to use glycogen (stored as carbohydrate), which doesn’t require oxygen to be broken down for energy. If you take in enough carbohydrates before a workout, you ensure that your body has enough glycogen stores. If you want to improve performance this is a key factor to consider in your pre workout meal. 

Another reason consuming carbohydrate is key is that training in a glycogen-depleted state blunts anabolism. Multiple studies show that protein synthesis slows to a crawl when glycogen stores are low (Churchley et al. 2007; Creer et al. 2005). 

Protein should also be consumed in a pre-workout meal. Consuming protein before a workout has an anabolic and anticatabolic effect. Protein provides a steady stream of amino acids at the onset of training; you maximise the delivery to working muscles and thereby attenuate the breakdown of the muscle tissue during your workout. 

Fat has been shown to not have any nutritional significance on pre-workout period. Due to the length of time it takes to digest you might want to consider avoiding it. 

What’s an ideal pre-workout meal?

An ideal pre-workout meal would include a nutrient-dense starch and low-fat protein. For example:

  • Eggs on multigrain bread
  • Chicken and rice 
  • Cottage cheese with oat cakes 
  • Wholemeal chicken pasta 
  • Turkey on multigrain bread
  • Chicken quinoa salad
  • Protein porridge 
  • Smoothie that includes oats, protein powder or Greek yogurt 

It’s also worth considering eating a piece of fruit within half an hour of training. Choosing fruits such as strawberries, apple, pears are low in GI (glycemic index) which means they won’t cause a rapid spike in blood sugar. The reason it’s significant is because insulin levels stay stable, therefore preventing the potential for a hypoglycemia – a condition that can result in light-headedness and fatigue. 

Try eating your pre-workout meal around 2-3 hours before you train to ensure digestion. 

Key points:

  • Aim to have a good balanced meal of nutrient-dense carbohydrates and low protein 2 hours before your workout 
  • Make sure you are well hydrated pre-training, during and post-training
  • Avoid high fat foods in the meal before your workout 
  • Plan to have a low GI fruit with you to eat half an hour after you train 


*Schoenfeld, Brad. The M.A.X. Muscle Plan. Human Kinetics,Inc.



The Importance Of The Squat

There are various functional movements you can incorporate into your training with a squatting pattern being a fundamental human movement patter that involves nearly every muscle in the body. Squatting improves your fitness, performance, and mobility for daily-life tasks. 

Think about the movement next time you pick something off the floor, go to the bathroom, and sit down on your office chair. Thanks to scientific research, data shows that squats are excellent for building strength, power and mobility. They can help counteract chronic muscular-skeletal problems such as weak glutes, hunched back, weak core (torso). 

With all this in mind how do you squat properly?

  1. Work on your balance stability and mobility – the prime movers in a squat pattern are the muscles around your hips and knees, but all joints below your belly button (hip, knee, ankle, foot) and most of the spine need to be stable and mobile to squat properly. One of the best ways to improve stability, strength and balance in a squat is with single leg work. 
  • Keep hips mobile – we all sit far too much which impacts hip mobility in two major ways: it weakens the glutes and it shortens the hip flexors. Both glutes and hip flexors support the activation of your hips so if they are weak or inactive your lower back takes over. You often see people leaning forward too much during a squat which puts stress on their spine. 
  • Knees follow toes – when squatting, keep knees stable, in line with the hips and feet. Don’t worry if your hips go over your toes, a study by Fry et al found that by limiting forward knee travel it shifts the stress from your knees to the hips/low back.  More important that your hips are back, behind your heels. 
  • Keep your ankles mobile and feet planted firmly –  ankle mobility is paramount in a squat. Dorsi-flexion of the ankle (i.e. lifting the ball of the foot with the heel in contact with the ground) is possibly the most important degrees of freedom for the ankle. Strong and mobile ankles help with support and power generation of a squat. Limited ankle mobility can lead to the heels coming off the floor, foot pronation (outside of the foot elevating) and knees caving in. 
  • Wear the right footwear – footwear that allows you to push through the mid-foot/heel. Your choice of footwear should be tailored to your personal goals. If you have any desire to squat heavy weights, purchasing weightlifting shoes is the one for you. Otherwise flat shoes such as cross trainers or even going barefoot is an option for strength training. Running shoes are the worst type to wear for squatting
  • Keep your spine neutral and chest proud – the angle of the torso should remain relatively constant during a squat (as upright as possible limiting forward lean). This doesn’t mean being straight up but keeping a natural arch in the spine, folding from the hips rather than hunching your back and keeping your chest proud. 

The example in the video is a goblet squat. However there are a load of different variations from plate, barbell, zercher, front, overhead, split, pistol etc. I would suggest as a starting point to go with a bodyweight progression such as sitting down on a chair then aim for the full range of movement before starting to add in load.

You will need to try out different stances to really see which one is the best for you and your body shape. Focusing on your tempo, form and technique is key to getting it right.

Work on your mobility regularly. Without a mobile body you are likely to get injured at some point whilst squatting or any other activity.

Take your time but don’t over analyse it. Watch a toddler squat they have the best technique!